Sunday, July 20, 2014


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#Cisco #Routers
#CCNA R&S, CCNP and CCIE Students

#Cisco Systems Engineer
#Specially Routing Students
# Network Engineers
#Cisco TAC Engineers
#Cisco CCIE Students

Trace route, by default, sends a sequence of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets addressed to a destination host; ICMP Echo Request or TCP SYN packets can also be used. The time-to-live (TTL) value, also known as hop limit, is used in determining the intermediate routers being traversed towards the destination. Routers decrement packets' TTL value by 1 when routing and discard packets whose TTL value has reached zero, returning the ICMP error message ICMP Time Exceeded. Common default values for TTL are 128 (Windows OS) and 64 (Unix-based OS).

Traceroute works by sending packets with gradually increasing TTL value, starting with TTL value of 1. The first router receives the packet, decrements the TTL value and drops the packet because it then has TTL value zero. The router sends an ICMP Time Exceeded message back to the source. The next set of packets are given a TTL value of 2, so the first router forwards the packets, but the second router drops them and replies with ICMP Time Exceeded. Proceeding in this way, traceroute uses the returned ICMP Time Exceeded messages to build a list of routers that packets traverse, until the destination is reached and returns an ICMP Echo Reply message.

Trace route Figure- NetworksBaseline

The sender expects a reply within a specified number of seconds. If a packet is not acknowledged within the expected interval, an asterisk is displayed. The Internet Protocol does not require packets to take the same route towards a particular destination, thus hosts listed might be hosts that other packets have traversed. If the host at hop #N does not reply, the hop is skipped in the output.

This is the Best example to understand how Trace route Works in the real Scenario Network.

Hope it will clear all doubts about Traceroute.



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